Sunday, June 16
Shadow

Uko abanyabwenge bafite ibyago byo kwibasirwa n’indwara zo mu mutwe n’agahinda gakabije

Ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko abantu bafite igipimo cy’ubwenge Intelligence Quotient (IQ) kiri hejuru, baba bafite ibyago byo kwibasirwa n’agahinda gakabije, indwara zo mu mutwe no gutangira gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge bakiri bato.

Ubusanzwe kugira igipimo cy’ubwenge kiri hejuru si bibi kuko ababufite bibahesha gutsinda mu ishuri, kubona akazi kabahesha imishahara iri hejuru, kwibeshaho neza ndetse n’ibindi byiza byinshi.Muri iyi nkuru tugiye kugaruka ku bibazo byibasira abantu bafite IQ iri hejuru, kuko usanga ari ibibazo bahuriyeho ari benshi.Ubusanzwe impuzandengo yo ku rwego rw’Isi igaragaza ko igipimo cy’ubwenge busanzwe iri hagati ya 90 na 110.

Ufite ubwenge buri hejuri y’ibyo bipimo, ubwonko bwe buba bufite ubushobozi bwisumbuye cyangwa se afite ubwenge bwinshi.Uri munsi na we aba afite ubwenge buke, yajya munsi ya 65 akaba ashobora no gufatwa nk’ufite uburwayi bwo mu mutwe.Muri 2015, Ruth Karpinski wo muri Pitzer College yo muri California yakoreye ubushakashatsi ku bantu 3,700 bo muri Mensa International, umuryango ubarizwamo abafite IQ cyangwa igipimo cy’ubwenge kiri hejuru ku kigero cya 132 cyangwa hejuru yaho.

Abo bantu babajijwe ibibazo birebana n’ubuzima bwabo bwo mu mutwe n’ibindi, aho benshi muri bo basubije ko bagira guhindagurika kw’amarangamutima kwa hato na hato, no kugira ubwoba budasanzwe buza mu bihe bitari na ngombwa, hafi ya bose basanga ibyo bibazo babihuriyeho.20% muri bo bavuze ko bagiye kwivuza kubera ikibazo cyo kugira ubwoba n’igihe bitari ngombwa, 27% bo bavuga ko bagiye kwivuza kubera kubangamirwa no guhindagurika kw’amarangamutima yabo, na bo bikabibasira no mu gihe bitari ngombwa.Mu bushakashatsi bwa Karpinski n’itsinda bafatanyije, bagaragaje ko abantu bafite igipimo cy’ubwenge kiri hejuru, bafite ibyago byinshi byo kwibasirwa n’ibibazo byo mu mutwe no guhindagurika kw’ibyiyumviro byabo, bitewe n’ubushobozi bafite budasanzwe bwo gukora ibintu runaka (Overexcitability).

Ibi biri mu bituma bakoresha ubwonko cyane bukananirwa, ibigira ingaruka ku ihindagurika ry’amarangamutima yabo.Ikindi yagaragaje kuri abo bantu ni uko bafite ubushobozi bwo gutekereza cyane bakabona ingaruka ikintu runaka cyagira kitaranaba, ariko izo ngaruka ntizibonwe n’undi wese udafite ubushobozi bw’imitekerereze nk’iyabafite IQ iri hejuru.Yatanze urugero rw’uko umukozi ufite IQ iri hejuru aba afite ubushobozi bwo kumva ibitekerezo by’umukoresha we, akamenya ikizakurikira niba ari kibi cyangwa kiza, ariko ibyo ntibitekerezwe n’abandi bakozi badafite IQ iri hejuru.

Ibi biri mu bituma byoroshye ko abafite igipimo cy’ubwenge kiri hejuru bagira ubwoba budasanzwe kuko batekereza no ku bintu bitari byaba, bakanahangayikishwa na byo bitewe n’uko batekereza ku ngaruka mbi byagira.Ikindi ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ni uko abantu bafite igipimo cy’ubwenge kiri hejuru bagira inshuti nke, kuko barangwa no kumva no gutekereza ku bintu bumvise, kuruta kuvuga.Ibi biri mu bituma bakunda kuba bari bonyine kenshi batekereza ku bibazengurutse kuruta kuba bari kumwe n’abandi, ibibakururira kugira ibyishimo gake no kugira agahinda gakabije kubera kumara igihe kinini bari bonyine bakanatekereza cyane.

Ibi biri mu byagaragajwe nk’impamvu ituma abantu bafite igipimo cy’ubwenge kiri hejuru, bafite n’ibyago byinshi byo gutangira gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge bakiri bato.Muri 2011, Kaminuza ya Cardiff yo muri Wales yifashishije ubushakashatsi bwakorewe mu Bwongereza mu 1970, yemeza iby’aya makuru.Ubwo bushakashatsi bwakorewe ku bana 8,000 bari bafite igipimo cy’ubwenge kiri hejuru bari hagati y’imyaka 5-10 y’amavuko batakoresheje ibiyobyabwenge na rimwe.

Abo bantu ni bo bongeye gukorerwaho ubushakashatsi bageze mu kigero cy’imyaka 16 ndetse banabukorerwaho bageze mu kigero cy’imyaka 30.Nyuma byagaragaye ko benshi muri bo bakoresheje ibiyobyabwenge birimo urumogi, Cocaine, Ecstasy na Amphetamines, cyangwa uruhurirane rwabyo.Ab’igitsinagabo barimo bakoresheje ikiyobwabwenge cya Amphetamines ku kigero cya 65%, naho ab’igitsinagore bakoresha urumogi na Cocaine ku kigero kiri hejuru gato ya 50%.

Ubu bushakashatsi bugaragaza ko abafite IQ iri hejuru badakoresha ibiyobyabwenge kubera ikigare nk’uko bigenda ku bandi kuko baba nta n’icyo bagira babamo, ahubwo babikora nko kwinezeza bari bonyine bagamije kwiyibagiza ibibazo byabo birimo n’agahinda gakabije.Gusa bugaragaza ko mu biyobyabwange bakunze gukoresha itabi ryo ritarimo.