Tuesday, April 16
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Kuki Kenya itakuyeho igihano cy’urupfu

Mu mezi ashize, ibihugu bibiri bya Afurika byatangaje umugambi wo gukuraho igihano cy’urupfu – Zambiya na Repubulika ya Centrafrique (CAR).

Muri rusange, ibihugu 22 bigize Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika Yunze ubumwe (AU) byavanyeho igihano cy’urupfu ku byaha byose, kimwe ku byaha bisanzwe. Mu 2021, ibihugu bine gusa muri AU ni byo byashidikanyije: Botswana, Misiri, Somaliya na Sudani y’Amajyepfo.

Ibihugu 17 byo muri Afurika bifatwa nkibihugu “de facto abolitionist”, bivuze ko bitigeze bishidikanya mu myaka 10.

Muri byo harimo Kenya, igumana igihano cy’urupfu kumanikwa – ibisigisigi by’abakoloni b’Abongereza. Iki gihano gishobora gutangwa ku byaha by’ubwicanyi, ibindi byaha bivamo urupfu, ubujura butavamo urupfu n’ubuhemu.

Igihe Hezekiya Ochuka na Pancras Oteyo Okumu bicwaga bazira uruhare bagize mu gushaka kunanirwa guhirika perezida Daniel Arap Moi mu 1982.

 

Dushingiye ku bushakashatsi n’ubuhanga mu by’amategeko, twizera ko Kenya igumana igihano cy’urupfu kubera akamenyero, korohereza ndetse n’ubusembure bworoshye aho kuba ibimenyetso bifatika bishingiye ku bimenyetso bifatika.

Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko ubumenyi bw’Abanyakenya ku gihano cy’urupfu ari buke. 66% by’abaturage gusa bazi ko igihugu kigumana igihano cy’urupfu. 21 ku ijana gusa ni bo bazi ko nta kwicwa kwabaye mu myaka 35. Imyaka myinshi, abantu barenga 100 bakatiwe urwo gupfa, ahanini bazira ubwicanyi cyangwa ubujura buhohoterwa.

Ikindi kintu gishobora kugira uruhare muri inertie ya guverinoma nuko abaturage bapfa  bayoborwa ningendo rusange. Ibihano by’urupfu by’imfungwa 4000 byagabanijwe mu 2009 ku butegetsi bwa Perezida Mwai Kibaki. Muri 2016 abandi 2.747 bayobowe na Perezida Uhuru Kenyatta.

 

Ariko iyicwa rishobora gusubukurwa mugihe amategeko agumye kubitabo. Niyo mpamvu abahanga babona ko ari ngombwa guhatira gukuraho icyo gihano. Ibi byatanga ihumure mubitekerezo kubatuye mu gicucu cyurupfu. Mu byukuri, ubucamanza mpuzamahanga bwerekana ko igihe kirekire ku rupfu – cyitwa “urupfu rw’urupfu” – ari igihano cy’ubugome, ubumuntu cyangwa gitesha agaciro.

Ubushakashatsi buherutse gukorwa na kaminuza ya Oxford na komisiyo y’igihugu ishinzwe uburenganzira bwa muntu muri Kenya (KNCHR) bwerekana ko abahindura ibitekerezo bya Kenya bashyigikiye ko ikurwaho, kandi igitekerezo rusange ntikibangamira. Hamwe rero no kuvugurura amategeko cyangwa amategeko, hagomba kubaho uruhare rwa societe civile hamwe nibikorwa bivuye mubaturage kurwego rwibanze, bikazana abaturage murugendo.

Hashyizweho ingamba zo kugabanya urugero n’ikurikizwa ry’igihano cyo kwicwa. Muri 2017, Urukiko rw’Ikirenga rwa Kenya rwatangaje ko igihano cy’urupfu giteganijwe kubera ubwicanyi kinyuranyije n’amategeko. Ibi byatangije ubushishozi mu bijyanye no kumenya niba igihano cy’urupfu kigomba gutangwa. Iyicwa ryashyizweho nkigihano ntarengwa, ariko ntabwo aricyo cyonyine.

Inkiko ziracyatanga ibihano by’urupfu. Mu mpera za 2021 hari abantu 601 bakatiwe urwo gupfa kandi muri uwo mwaka bakatiwe 14.

Guverinoma zikomeje gukoresha igihano cy’urupfu zikunze kuvuga ko abaturage babo babishyigikiye. Abayobozi ba Kenya nabo ntibavaho. Mu 2007 na 2015 inteko ishinga amategeko ya Kenya yatoye ikurwaho ry’igihano cy’urupfu (igihe imishinga y’amategeko yatangizwaga n’abadepite ku giti cyabo ariko ikangwa n’inteko ishinga amategeko).

 

Igitekerezo rusange ntabwo ari inzitizi yo gukuraho
Inyigisho zacu rusange zakoze ubushakashatsi ku cyitegererezo cy’Abanyakenya 1.672. Twasanze umubare muto (51 ku ijana) washyigikiye kugumana igihano cyurupfu. Gusa munsi ya gatatu bari bashyigikiye cyane kugumana.

Uru nurwego rwo hasi rwinkunga kuruta ibindi bihugu byafrica abolitionist de facto. Urugero, muri Zimbabwe, ubushakashatsi bwacu bwerekanye ko 61 ku ijana by’abaturage bashyigikiye kugumana.

Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye kandi ko muri Kenya gushyigikira igihano cy’urupfu mu bihe byihariye (bifatika) byari bike ugereranije no gushyigikirwa. Urugero, rwaragabanutse kugera kuri 32 ku ijana kubera ubujura bikaviramo urupfu na 27 ku ijana by’ubwicanyi.

Abenshi mu baturage babanje gushyigikira kugumaho bavuze ko bazemera ko havaho niba ari politiki ya leta ya Kenya. Mu buryo nk’ubwo, abashyizeho ibitekerezo hafi ya bose bavuze ko bazashyigikira byimazeyo igikorwa cy’inteko ishinga amategeko cyo gukuraho igihano cy’urupfu.

Amateka, habaye inzira zitandukanye zo gukuraho iki gihano muri Afrika.

Mu Rwanda, igihano cy’urupfu cyakuweho nyuma y’ubutegetsi bubi. Muri Siyera Lewone, perezida yayoboye ubukangurambaga butera amajwi mu nteko. Muri Afurika y’Epfo, itegeko nshinga nyuma ya apartheid muri iki gihugu ryahaye inzira urukiko kubuza igihano cy’urupfu. Yemeraga uburenganzira bwo “kudafatwa nk’ubugome, ubumuntu cyangwa butesha agaciro”.

Ingamba zatoranijwe kubashinzwe ibitekerezo bya Kenya ni uguhindura amategeko mpanabyaha. Ariko hasabwe kandi ko byaba ngombwa gushyira ingamba nyinshi icyarimwe. Uburyo bwaho bwaba bukubiyemo ibikorwa by’inkiko, amatorero na perezida. Iyindi nzira yaba irimo lobbying Kenya gushyira umukono kumasezerano mpuzamahanga yerekeye gukuraho igihano cy’urupfu.Source The East African

  • Lyvine Rwanda

    His name is Livine Nsanzumuhira Ntambara known as Lyvine Rwanda,Studied Mass communication and Journalism at EAST AFRICAN UNIVERSITY,he works journalism as passion and professional

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